The CHEK2 1100delC protein-truncating mutation has a carrier frequency of approximately 0.7% in Northern and Western European populations and confers an approximately 2-fold increased risk of breast cancer. It has also been suggested to increase risks of colorectal and prostate cancer, but its involvement with these or other types of cancer has not been confirmed. The incidence of cancer other than breast cancer in 11,116 individuals from 734 non-BRCA1/2 breast cancer families from the United Kingdom, Germany, Netherlands, and the United States was compared with that predicted by population rates. Relative risks (RR) to carriers and noncarriers were estimated by maximum likelihood, via the expectation-maximization algorithm to allow for unknown genotypes. Sixty-seven families contained at least one tested CHEK2 1100delC mutation carrier. There was evidence of underreporting of cancers in male relatives (422 cancers observed, 860 expected) but not in females (322 observed, 335 expected); hence, we focused on cancer risks in female carriers. The risk of cancers other than breast cancer in female carriers was not significantly elevated, although a modest increase in risk could not be excluded (RR, 1.18; 95% confidence interval, 0.64-2.17). The carrier risk was not significantly raised for any individual cancer site, including colorectal cancer (RR, 1.60; 95% confidence interval, 0.54-4.71). However, between ages 20 to 50 years, the risks of colorectal and lung cancer were both higher in female carriers than noncarriers (P = 0.041 and 0.0001, respectively). There was no evidence of a higher prostate cancer risk in carriers than noncarriers (P = 0.26), although underreporting of male cancers limited our power to detect such a difference. Our results suggest that the risk of cancer associated with CHEK2 1100delC mutations is restricted to breast cancer, although we cannot rule out a small increase in overall cancer risk.