Longitudinal study of risk factors for habitual snoring in a general adult population: the Busselton Health Study

Chest. 2006 Dec;130(6):1779-83. doi: 10.1378/chest.130.6.1779.


Background: The aim of this longitudinal study was to identify body size, behavioral, and respiratory risk factors for the development of habitual snoring in a general adult population.

Methods: The sample for this study comprised 967 adults aged 25 to 74 years who reported not snoring in the 1981 Busselton Health Survey and who also attended the 1994-1995 follow-up survey. Logistic regression was used to identify and quantify the effect of baseline and change risk factors for the development of habitual snoring.

Results: A total of 13% had become habitual snorers by 1994-1995. Male gender (odds ratio [OR], 3.5) and baseline body mass index (OR, 1.4 per 3.4 kg/m(2)) were significant predictors of habitual snoring; after accounting for these variables, no other baseline body size, behavioral, or respiratory/allergy variables were significantly related to the development of habitual snoring. However, change in body mass index over the 14-year follow-up period (OR, 1.55 per 2.3 kg/m(2)), development of asthma (OR, 2.8), and commencement of smoking (OR, 2.2) were additional significant independent risk factors for development of habitual snoring.

Conclusions: This study has confirmed male gender, obesity, and weight gain as key determinants of habitual snoring, and has indicated that development of asthma and taking up smoking also play a role. Maintaining a healthy weight and not smoking are recommended lifestyle preventive strategies to reduce the risk of sleep-disordered breathing and its sequelae.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Asthma / complications
  • Asthma / epidemiology
  • Body Mass Index
  • Body Size
  • Confidence Intervals
  • Female
  • Health Surveys
  • Humans
  • Longitudinal Studies
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Odds Ratio
  • Risk Factors
  • Smoking / adverse effects
  • Smoking / epidemiology
  • Snoring / epidemiology*
  • Snoring / etiology*
  • Statistics as Topic
  • Western Australia