The purpose of this study was to evaluate the in vivo effect of FK506 on human pancreatic islets. Twenty-five nude mice were made diabetic by one intravenous injection of streptozotocin. Approximately 600 islets were administered in the renal subcapsular space 3-5 days following streptozotocin administration. One week after transplantation, the mice were divided in four groups. In group 1, the animals received 1 injection of 0.5 ml of diluent i.p. daily for one week. In groups 2, 3, and 4 the treatments were daily i.p. injection of 0.3, 1, and 3 mg/kg FK506, respectively. After treatment, the functional integrity of the transplanted human islets was tested by measuring the plasma glucose and human C-peptide response to intraperitoneal glucose injection in groups 1 and 4. IPGTT alone was assessed in groups 2 and 3. The results indicate that i.p. administration of FK506 for one week at a dose 0.3 mg/kg/day did not result in any significant alteration of glucose disappearance and C-peptide response to IPGTT. Higher doses of FK506 produced a significant delay in glucose disappearance in groups 3 and 4, and a significant inhibition of glucose-mediated C-peptide response in group 4.