Stromal-derived factor-1 (SDF-1) is a CXC chemokine that attracts leukocytes and endothelial progenitor cells. In the present study, we demonstrated that oncostatin M (OSM) stimulates expression and secretion of SDF-1 in both human adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hATSCs) and bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells. The OSM-stimulated expression of SDF-1 in hATSCs was completely abrogated by pretreatment of the cells with U0126, an MEK-specific inhibitor, but not with AG490, a JAK2 inhibitor, or WHI-P131, a JAK3 inhibitor, suggesting that ERK, but not JAK2 and JAK3, is involved in the OSM-induced expression of SDF-1. Pretreatment of hATSCs with anti-VEGF neutralizing antibody or VEGF receptor inhibitors, SU5416 and KRN633, had no significant impact on the OSM induction of SDF-1. Furthermore, treatment of hATSCs with recombinant human VEGF165 or adenoviral overexpression of VEGF did not increase the expression of SDF-1. These results suggest that OSM induces secretion of SDF-1 through ERK-, but not VEGF-, dependent signaling pathways in mesenchymal stem cells.