What is needed to achieve a hemoglobin of 11.0-13.0 g/dl in end-stage renal disease

Blood Purif. 2007;25(1):53-7. doi: 10.1159/000096398. Epub 2006 Dec 14.


Effective treatment of anemia in end-stage renal disease (ESRD) results in reduced fatigue and improved quality of life. The National Kidney Foundation's 2006 anemia treatment guidelines recommend maintaining hemoglobin (Hb) at >11 g/dl, while noting that there is insufficient evidence to routinely maintain Hb levels > or =13.0 g/dl. Success in achieving Hb levels within these targets requires careful monitoring and adjustments to treatment. In addition, causes for diminished response and refractory anemia must be adequately evaluated. In this article, factors important for achieving Hb 11-13 g/dl in patients with ESRD are reviewed.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Anemia / drug therapy*
  • Anemia / etiology
  • Erythropoietin / therapeutic use*
  • Hemoglobins / metabolism*
  • Humans
  • Iron / therapeutic use*
  • Kidney Failure, Chronic / blood*
  • Kidney Failure, Chronic / complications
  • Kidney Failure, Chronic / therapy
  • Recombinant Proteins
  • Renal Dialysis


  • Hemoglobins
  • Recombinant Proteins
  • Erythropoietin
  • Iron