Special Mangrove soil niches possesses valuable microbial resources. Unfortunately, up to the present, so far there is very little knowledge on the mangrove soil microbial communities. It mainly due to the limitations of research methods. Cultureindependent approaches based on 16S rRNA, 18S rRNA gene analysis open the window to study microbial diversity in mangrove soil. The progress had achieved about studying on mangrove soil microbial species diversity, metabolic diversity and treating environmental pollutions was summarized in the paper. In addition, the bright future of mangrove soil microorganisms was described.