Thirty low-birthweight (less than 1500g) infants (15 with bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD), and 15 controls less than or equal to 5 days O2) and 15 fullterm controls were evaluated at 10 to 12 years of age. BPD children weighted less than fullterm children and had smaller head circumferences than either preterm or fullterm controls. They also had significantly more neurological abnormality than both control groups. BPD children and preterm controls had lower WISC-R arithmetic scores and lower Beery VMI scores, as well as greater need of resources and special education compared with fullterm controls. BPD survivors at 10 to 12 years of age continue to manifest sequelae related to their early pulmonary disease.