Adherence to cardioprotective medications and mortality among patients with diabetes and ischemic heart disease

BMC Cardiovasc Disord. 2006 Dec 15;6:48. doi: 10.1186/1471-2261-6-48.

Abstract

Background: Patients with diabetes and ischemic heart disease (IHD) are at high risk for adverse cardiac outcomes. Clinical practice guidelines recommend multiple cardioprotective medications to reduce recurrent events. We evaluated the association between cardioprotective medication adherence and mortality among patients with diabetes and IHD.

Methods: In a retrospective cohort study of 3,998 patients with diabetes and IHD, we evaluated use of ACE inhibitors or angiotensin receptor blockers, beta-blockers, and statin medications. Receipt of cardioprotective medications was based on filled prescriptions. Medication adherence was calculated as the proportion of days covered (PDC) for filled prescriptions. The primary outcome of interest was all-cause mortality.

Results: The majority of patients (92.8%) received at least 1 cardioprotective medication. Patients receiving any medications had lower unadjusted mortality rates compared to patients not receiving any medications (7.9% vs. 11.5%; p = 0.03). In multivariable analysis, receipt of any cardioprotective medication remained associated with lower all-cause mortality (OR 0.65; 95% CI 0.43-0.99). Among patients receiving cardioprotective medications, the majority (80.3%) were adherent (PDC > or = 0.80). Adherent patients had lower unadjusted mortality rates (6.7% vs. 12.1%; p < 0.01). In multivariable analysis, medication adherence remained associated with lower all-cause mortality (OR 0.52; 95% CI 0.39-0.69) compared to non-adherence. In contrast, there was no mortality difference between patients receiving cardioprotective medications who were non-adherent compared to patients not receiving any medications (OR 1.01; 95% CI 0.64-1.61).

Conclusion: In conclusion, medication adherence is associated with improved outcomes among patients with diabetes and IHD. Quality improvement interventions are needed to increase medication adherence in order for patients to maximize the benefit of cardioprotective medications.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Adrenergic beta-Antagonists / therapeutic use
  • Aged
  • Aged, 80 and over
  • Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists
  • Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors / therapeutic use*
  • Diabetic Angiopathies / drug therapy*
  • Diabetic Angiopathies / mortality
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors / therapeutic use
  • Logistic Models
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Multivariate Analysis
  • Myocardial Ischemia / drug therapy*
  • Myocardial Ischemia / mortality
  • Patient Compliance*
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Survival Analysis
  • Treatment Outcome

Substances

  • Adrenergic beta-Antagonists
  • Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists
  • Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors
  • Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors