The construction of a cynomolgus macaque (Macaca fascicularis, Mafa) BAC library for genomic comparison between rhesus and cynomolgus macaques is necessary to promote the cynomolgus macaque as one of the important experimental animals for future medical and biological research. In this paper, we constructed a cynomolgus macaque BAC library and a map of the MHC (Mafa) genomic region for comparison of the genomic organization and nucleotide similarities between the human, the chimpanzee, and the rhesus macaque. The BAC library consists of 221,184 clones with an average insert size of 83 kb, providing a sixfold coverage of the haploid genome. A total of 114 BAC clones and 54 PCR primer sets were used to construct a 4.3-Mb contig of the MHC region. Diversity analysis of genomic sequence from selected subregions of the MHC revealed that the cynomolgus sequence varied compared to rhesus macaque, human, and chimpanzee sequences by 0.48, 4.15, and 4.10%, respectively. From these findings, we conclude that the BAC library and Mafa genomic map are useful tools for genome analysis and will have important applications for comparative genomics and identifying regions of consequence in medical research.