The T cell Ig and mucin domain-containing proteins (Tim) regulate Th1- and Th2-mediated immune responses. We investigated the ability of Abs blocking Tim-1 or Tim-3 ligand-binding activity to prevent and treat murine experimental allergic conjunctivitis (EC), a Th2-mediated disease. Treatment with either Ab during the induction phase of EC in actively immunized wild-type mice suppressed EC and upregulated Th1 and Th2 immune responses. In contrast, both Abs exacerbated EC in actively immunized IFN-gamma-knockout mice. Thus, both anti-Tim Abs suppress the pathogenic immune responses generated in the induction phase by upregulating systemic IFN-gamma production. Treatment of actively immunized mice and passively immunized mice with either anti-Tim Ab just prior to RW challenge also suppressed EC. Thus, treatment with anti-Tim-1 or anti-Tim-3 Ab can suppress both the induction and progression of EC, which could indicate potential preventive and/or therapeutic approaches for allergic diseases such as allergic conjunctivitis.