Human plasma consists of mainly large proteins, which vary in terms of both composition and concentration with the physiological state of the individual. Alterations in protein concentrations reflect the current state of the individual's health and thus may be utilized as valuable biomarkers for a specific biological process or disease. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) has proven to be a valuable method for the separation and comparison of complex protein mixtures, for example, from disease and healthy states, as this method provides information regarding the variation, relative quantities, and structures of the intact proteins. The procedures utilized for the preparation of samples for 2-DE are critical to the acquisition of high-quality results for the discovery of biomarkers. The objective of this study was to review the preparation methods of plasma for 2-DE, particularly those designed to improve the detection of proteins in low abundance in plasma on 2-DE. The use of anticoagulants and protease inhibitors during the collection of blood, the removal of abundant proteins using multicomponent immunodepletion system, and desalting procedure allow us to compile profiles of proteins occurring in low concentrations in the plasma and to improve the pattern generated during 2-DE.