Thymidine incorporation proliferation assays to whole bovine P2 protein and its 58-81 and 14-25 synthetic peptides were performed on blood mononuclear cells from ten patients with Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS), six patients with chronic idiopathic demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy (CIDP), and age and sex matched normal subjects. The only patients whose cells showed any response were two out of four with very early GBS. One responded to P2 and both synthetic peptides. One responded to P2 but to neither peptide. The results support a role for cell mediated immunity to P2 protein in some patients with Guillain-Barré syndrome.