Cytoplasmic antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody positive pauci-immune glomerulonephritis associated with infectious endocarditis

Clin Nephrol. 2006 Dec;66(6):447-54. doi: 10.5414/cnp66447.


Renal deterioration often occurs in cases of infectious endocarditis (IE), but, IE- associated nephritis with rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis (RPGN) is rare. Patients with severe infection (e.g., IE) sometimes show positivity for cytoplasmic antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (C-ANCA). Therefore, diagnosis and treatment are very difficult in cases of RPGN with IE and positivity for C-ANCA. Such cases are rare, only 12 have been reported in the English literature. Herein, we describe the case of a 50-year-old man who presented with RPGN with IE and tested positively for C-ANCA. He was referred to our hospital because of leg edema, purpura and renal dysfunction. Laboratory tests revealed serum creatinine elevation and positivity for C-ANCA and proteinase 3-specific (PR3)-ANCA. RPGN and acute renal failure were diagnosed. Hemodialysis and steroid therapy were started. Streptococcus oralis was isolated by blood culture. Transthoracic echocardiography revealed grade III mitral valve insufficiency with two vegetations. Therefore, IE was diagnosed. The steroid therapy was stopped, and antibiotic therapy was begun. Because there was no improvement, surgical therapy was performed. The operation was successful, but the patient died of brain hemorrhage. Our experience in this case indicates C/PR3-ANCA positive RPGN must be ruled out in patients with infectious disease, particularly IE, together with renal symptoms, and renal biopsy should be performed.

Publication types

  • Case Reports

MeSH terms

  • Acute Kidney Injury / diagnosis
  • Acute Kidney Injury / etiology
  • Antibodies, Antineutrophil Cytoplasmic / blood
  • Antibodies, Antineutrophil Cytoplasmic / immunology*
  • Echocardiography
  • Endocarditis, Bacterial / blood
  • Endocarditis, Bacterial / complications*
  • Endocarditis, Bacterial / immunology
  • Fatal Outcome
  • Glomerulonephritis / blood
  • Glomerulonephritis / complications
  • Glomerulonephritis / immunology*
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Mitral Valve Insufficiency / diagnostic imaging
  • Mitral Valve Insufficiency / etiology
  • Mitral Valve Insufficiency / surgery


  • Antibodies, Antineutrophil Cytoplasmic