Co-existing psychiatric problems in ADHD in the ADORE cohort

Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2006 Dec;15 Suppl 1:I25-9. doi: 10.1007/s00787-006-1004-y.


Objective: To study the impact of co-existing psychiatric problems with ADHD on behavioural features, psychosocial functioning and quality of life in subjects of the ADORE cohort (N=1,478).

Methods: The following six groups of associated psychiatric problems with ADHD were compared: oppositional-defiant disorder or conduct disorder only (ODD/CD); anxiety or depressive disorder only (ANX/DEP); tic/Tourette's disorder only (TIC/Tourette's); developmental co-ordination disorder only (DCD); two or more associated conditions; and none. Dependent variables included the ADHD Rating Scale-IV, the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire, the Clinical Global Impression-Severity scale, the Children's Global Assessment Scale and the Child Health Illness Profile-Child Edition.

Results: Having multiple co-existing psychiatric problems increased the severity of ADHD in all domains, be it behavioural features, psychosocial impairment or deterioration of quality of life. A similar though less consistent pattern applied to subjects with co-existing ODD/CD.

Conclusions: The ADORE study provides impressive evidence for the far-reaching consequences of co-existing psychiatric problems in children with ADHD that warrant intensive consideration in clinical assessment and treatment.

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adolescent Behavior / psychology
  • Analysis of Variance
  • Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity / epidemiology*
  • Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity / psychology
  • Child
  • Child Behavior / psychology
  • Cohort Studies
  • Comorbidity
  • Europe / epidemiology
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Longitudinal Studies
  • Male
  • Mental Disorders / diagnosis
  • Mental Disorders / epidemiology*
  • Mental Disorders / psychology
  • Quality of Life / psychology
  • Severity of Illness Index
  • Surveys and Questionnaires