Visfatin and apelin are two novel adipocyte- secreted hormone proposed to link obesity with insulin resistance. In this study we investigated whether plasma visfatin and apelin levels were altered in normal, impaired glucose tolerance, and type 2 diabetic subjects. We also assessed the association between plasma visfatin, or apelin and body composition, metabolic parameters, and resistin concentrations in these subjects. The visfatin levels of fasting and 2-h post-glucose load were found to be significantly decreased in diabetics compared with the controls ( P<0.05). In contrast, basal apelin levels were significantly increased in the IGT and diabetic subjects compared with the controls ( P<0.05 and P<0.01). The apelin levels of 2-h post-glucose load were significantly higher than the basal levels in every group (all P<0.05). Fasting plasma visfatin was found to correlate positively and significantly with BMI, WHR, and fasting plasma resistin, but negatively with HbA1c and 2 h OGTT glucose. Multiple regression analysis showed that WHR, HbA1c, 2 h OGTT glucose were independent related factors influencing plasma visfatin levels. Fasting plasma apelin levels correlated positively with HOMA-IR, BMI, TC, LDL-C, FBG and Fasting plasma insulin. Multiple regression analysis also showed that HOMA-IR, BMI, and TC were independent related factors influencing plasma apelin levels. The present work indicates the potential link of visfatin and apelin with the pathogenesis of insulin resistance and T2DM.