Flavonoid content of U.S. fruits, vegetables, and nuts

J Agric Food Chem. 2006 Dec 27;54(26):9966-77. doi: 10.1021/jf061478a.


Analytical data are reported for 20 flavonoids (as aglycones) determined for more than 60 fresh fruits, vegetables, and nuts collected from four regions across the United States at two times of the year. Sample collection was designed and implemented by the Nutrient Data Laboratory (USDA). Analyses of eight flavan-3-ols (catechin, catechin gallate, epicatechin, epicatechin gallate, epigallocatechin, epigallocatechin gallate, gallocatechin, and gallocatechin gallate), six anthocyanins (cyanidin, delphinidin, malvidin, pelargonidin, peonidin, and petunidin), two flavanones (hesperetin and naringenin), two flavones (apigenin and luteolin), and two flavonols (myricetin and quercetin) were performed by the Food Composition Laboratory (USDA) using a hydrolysis method for the anthocyanidins, flavones, and flavonols and a direct extraction method for the flavan-3-ols and flavanones. Experimental results compare favorably (few statistically significant differences) to literature values in the flavonoid and proanthocyanidin database previously compiled by the Nutrient Data Laboratory. The results of this study showed a seasonal variation only for blueberries. This study also showed that the variation in the flavonoid content of foods, as purchased by the U.S. consumer, is very large. The relative standard deviation, averaged for each flavonoid in each food, was 168%.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study

MeSH terms

  • Flavonoids / analysis*
  • Food Analysis / methods
  • Fruit / chemistry*
  • Nuts / chemistry*
  • Seasons
  • United States
  • Vegetables / chemistry*


  • Flavonoids