The main purpose of this study was to determine whether the increased glucose transport (GT) found immediately postexercise (IPEX) or 4 h postexercise (4hPEX) is accompanied by increased phosphorylation of Akt substrate of 160 kDa (AS160, a protein regulator of GLUT4 translocation). Paired epitrochlearis muscles were dissected from rats (sedentary or IPEX, 2-h swim) and used to measure protein phosphorylation and insulin-independent GT. IPEX values exceeded sedentary values for GT and phosphorylations of AS160, AMP-activated protein kinase (pAMPK) and acetyl-CoA carboxylase (pACC) but not for AS160 abundance or phosphorylation of Akt serine (pSerAkt), Akt threonine (pThrAkt), or glycogen synthase kinase-3 (pGSK3). AS160 phosphorylation was significantly correlated with GT (R=0.801, P<0.01) and pAMPK (R=0.655, P<0.05). Muscles from other rats were studied 4hPEX along with sedentary controls. One muscle per rat was incubated without insulin, and the contralateral muscle was incubated with insulin. 4hPEX values exceeded sedentary values for insulin-stimulated GT. The elevated pAMPK and pACC found IPEX had reversed by 4hPEX. Insulin caused a significant increase in pSerAkt, pThrAkt, pGSK3, and AS160 phosphorylation with or without exercise. Exercise significantly increased AS160 phosphorylation, regardless of insulin, with unchanged AS160 abundance. Among the signaling proteins studied, insulin-stimulated GT was significantly correlated only with insulin-stimulated pThrAkt (R=0.720, P<0.0005). The results are consistent with a role for increased AS160 phosphorylation in the increased insulin-independent GT IPEX, and the exercise effects on AS160 phosphorylation and/or pThrAkt at 4hPEX are potentially relevant to the increased insulin-stimulated glucose transport at this time.