Sensitive protein detection via triple-binder proximity ligation assays

Nat Methods. 2007 Feb;4(2):135-7. doi: 10.1038/nmeth974. Epub 2006 Dec 17.


The detection of weakly expressed proteins and protein complexes in biological samples represents a fundamental challenge. We have developed a new proximity-ligation strategy named 3PLA that uses three recognition events for the highly specific and sensitive detection of as little as a hundred molecules of the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), the biomarkers troponin I, and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) alone or in complex with an inhibitor--demonstrating the versatility of 3PLA.

Publication types

  • Evaluation Study
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Antibodies / metabolism
  • Biotin / metabolism
  • Humans
  • Immunoassay*
  • Molecular Probe Techniques*
  • Nucleic Acid Hybridization
  • Oligonucleotides / metabolism
  • Polymerase Chain Reaction
  • Prostate-Specific Antigen / analysis
  • Proteins / analysis*
  • Sensitivity and Specificity
  • Streptavidin / metabolism
  • Troponin I / analysis
  • U937 Cells
  • Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A / analysis


  • Antibodies
  • Oligonucleotides
  • Proteins
  • Troponin I
  • Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A
  • Biotin
  • Streptavidin
  • Prostate-Specific Antigen