The bacterial pneumonia is one of the most frequent complications leading to death among hospitalized patients. The morbidity and mortality of pneumonia is extremely high in the intensive care units and in chronic nursing stations, especially in institutes dealing with old patients. The most common form of lung infection is the aspiration pneumonia. Periodontal diseases play an evident role in the etiology of aspiration pneumonia due to their effect to alter the oral bacterial flora. Authors review the significance of pathogen microorganisms originating from the oral cavity in the development of bacterial pneumonia. The extent of the affected population is discussed and the importance of their oral hygiene and bacterial flora is also specified. The bacterial, enzymatic and molecular pathomechanisms leading to aspiration pneumonia are described, and high risk populations and treatment types are determined. The possibilities of prevention methods for aspiration pneumonia are fully explained and recent directions of actual researches and proposals to minimize the incidence of this disease are summarized.