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, 102 (1), 22-31

Immune Effect of Heat-Killed Multistrain of Lactobacillus Acidophilus Against Salmonella Typhimurium Invasion to Mice

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Immune Effect of Heat-Killed Multistrain of Lactobacillus Acidophilus Against Salmonella Typhimurium Invasion to Mice

W-H Lin et al. J Appl Microbiol.

Abstract

Aims: This study attempted to determine whether lactic acid bacteria (LAB) could have a better probiotic function when used as a multistrain mixture, i.e. Mix-LAB, than when used as a monostrain. To this end, three strains of Lactobacillus acidophilus, specifically strain LAP5, LAF1 and LAH7, were heat-killed and mixed. This heat-killed Mix-LAB was used to evaluate the effectiveness of multistrain in inhibiting Salmonella invasion into cultured cells and into organs (spleen and liver) of live mice.

Methods and results: BALB/c mice were orally administered with heat-killed Mix-LAB or sterile normal saline (control) for seven consecutive days and then challenged with orally administered Salmonella typhimurium on day 8. Results showed that, at day 6 after the challenge, the mice which had received Mix-LAB exhibited lower rates (P < 0.05) of Salmonella invasion into liver and spleen than did the control mice. Also, before the Salmonella challenge, the serum tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) levels were not significantly different (P > 0.05) between these two groups of mice. After the challenge, however, the serum TNF-alpha level was significantly elevated (P < 0.05) in the control group, but not significantly changed in the Mix-LAB fed mice. To investigate possible factors involved in heat-killed Mix-LABs antagonistic effect on Salmonella invasion of mouse organs, heat-killed single strain and Mix-LAB were evaluated for ability to inhibit Salmonella invasion into cultured human intestinal Int-407 and Caco-2 cells. Results showed that none of the heat-killed strains were able to protect these cultured cells from Salmonella invasion, even though strains of LAP5 and Mix-LAB were adherent to them. However, study of the activation of murine macrophage Raw 264.7 cells showed that heat-killed Mix-LAB stimulated TNF-alpha production, nitric oxide release, and increased phagocytic activity in macrophages.

Conclusions: Our findings suggest that heat-killed Mix-LAB can inhibit Salmonella invasion of mouse organs through the immunomodulating role of activated macrophage.

Significance and impact of the study: The ability of heat-killed Mix-LAB to prevent bacterial infection in mice was found to be more significant than that of viable monostrain. This effect may be due to the activation of the immune system rather than to the adherence of LAB to the intestine epithelium.

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