Coenzyme Q(10) (CoQ(10)) is a vital lipophilic molecule that transfers electrons from mitochondrial respiratory chain complexes I and II to complex III. Deficiency of CoQ(10) has been associated with diverse clinical phenotypes, but, in most patients, the molecular cause is unknown. The first defect in a CoQ(10) biosynthetic gene, COQ2, was identified in a child with encephalomyopathy and nephrotic syndrome and in a younger sibling with only nephropathy. Here, we describe an infant with severe Leigh syndrome, nephrotic syndrome, and CoQ(10) deficiency in muscle and fibroblasts and compound heterozygous mutations in the PDSS2 gene, which encodes a subunit of decaprenyl diphosphate synthase, the first enzyme of the CoQ(10) biosynthetic pathway. Biochemical assays with radiolabeled substrates indicated a severe defect in decaprenyl diphosphate synthase in the patient's fibroblasts. This is the first description of pathogenic mutations in PDSS2 and confirms the molecular and clinical heterogeneity of primary CoQ(10) deficiency.