SPSS and SAS programs for generalizability theory analyses

Behav Res Methods. 2006 Aug;38(3):542-7. doi: 10.3758/bf03192810.


The identification and reduction of measurement errors is a major challenge in psychological testing. Most investigators rely solely on classical test theory for assessing reliability, whereas most experts have long recommended using generalizability theory instead. One reason for the common neglect of generalizability theory is the absence of analytic facilities for this purpose in popular statistical software packages. This article provides a brief introduction to generalizability theory, describes easy to use SPSS, SAS, and MATLAB programs for conducting the recommended analyses, and provides an illustrative example, using data (N = 329) for the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale. Program output includes variance components, relative and absolute errors and generalizability coefficients, coefficients for D studies, and graphs of D study results.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Electronic Data Processing / methods*
  • Generalization, Psychological
  • Psychological Theory*
  • Psychology / methods*
  • Software*
  • Statistics as Topic / methods*