Hypospadias: an update

Asian J Androl. 2007 Jan;9(1):16-22. doi: 10.1111/j.1745-7262.2007.00243.x.


Hypospadias is the most common congenital anomaly of the penis. The problem usually develops sporadically and without an obvious underlying cause. The ectopically positioned urethral meatus lies proximal to the normal site and on the ventral aspect of the penis, and in severe cases opens onto the scrotum or perineum. The foreskin on the ventral surface is deficient, while that on the dorsal surface is abundant, giving the appearance of a dorsal hood. Chordee is more common in severe cases. Cryptorchidism and inguinal hernia are the most common associated anomalies. The frequency of associated anomalies increases with the severity of hypospadias. For isolated anterior or middle hypospadias, laboratory studies are not usually necessary. Screening for urinary tract anomalies should be considered in patients with posterior hypospadias and in those with an anomaly of at least one additional organ system. The ideal age for surgical repair in a healthy child is between 6 and 12 months of age. Most cases can be repaired in a single operation and on an outpatient basis. Even patients with a less than perfect surgical result are usually able to enjoy a satisfactory sexual life.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Geography
  • Humans
  • Hypospadias / embryology
  • Hypospadias / epidemiology*
  • Hypospadias / etiology
  • Hypospadias / surgery
  • Incidence
  • Male
  • Penis / abnormalities