This article reviews recent developments and core topics in the use and design of pediatric cuffed tracheal tubes. A concept for an appropriate pediatric cuffed tracheal tube is introduced. The main points in this concept are evidence-based tracheal tube size recommendation, continuous cuff pressure monitoring and a pediatric tracheal tube with an anatomically-based intubation depth mark and a short distally placed high-volume-low pressure cuff made from an ultra-thin polyurethane membrane with markedly improved tracheal sealing performance. The main points in proper handling of cuffed tracheal tubes in children are highlighted. Finally, an outlook on future developments in the design of pediatric cuffed tracheal tubes and an overview of tasks to be performed in evaluating them is given.