In rodents a high-fructose diet induces metabolic derangements similar to those in metabolic syndrome. Previously we suggested that in mouse liver an unidentified nuclear protein binding to the sterol regulatory element (SRE)-binding protein-1c (SREBP-1c) promoter region plays a key role for the response to high-fructose diet. Here, using MALDI-TOF MASS technique, we identified an X-chromosome-linked RNA binding motif protein (RBMX) as a new candidate molecule. In electrophoretic mobility shift assay, anti-RBMX antibody displaced the bands induced by fructose-feeding. Overexpression or suppression of RBMX on rat hepatoma cells regulated the SREBP-1c promoter activity. RBMX may control SREBP-1c expression in mouse liver in response to high-fructose diet.