Recent works in the area of stroke and brain ischemia has demonstrated the significance of the inflammatory response accompanying necrotic brain injury. Acutely, this response appears to contribute to ischemic pathology, and anti-inflammatory strategies have become popular. This chapter will discuss the current knowledge of the contribution of systemic and local inflammation in experimental stroke. It will review the role of specific cell types including leukocytes, endothelium, glia, microglia, the extracellular matrix and neurons. Intracellular inflammatory signaling pathways such as nuclear factor kappa beta and mitogen-activated protein kinases, and mediators produced by inflammatory cells such as cytokines, chemokines, reactive oxygen species and arachidonic acid metabolites will be reviewed as well as the potential for therapy in stroke and hypoxic-ischemic injury.