The tetracycline-resistant transposon Tn10 and its "high-hopper" derivative Tn10HH104 were introduced into the Azotobacter vinelandii genome using suicide conjugative plasmids derived from pRK2013. Several types of mutants induced by either of these elements are described. Nif- mutants (deficient in nitrogen fixation) were easily isolated, whereas the isolation of other mutant types (auxotrophs, sugar non-users) required special selection conditions. The characterization of the mutations as transposon insertions was often complicated and sometimes required a combination of genetic and physical tests. A common source of complication, the existence of double inserts, was found among the mutants induced by Tn10HH104 but not among those induced by Tn10. Both the high-hopper and the wild-type element proved to undergo secondary transpositions, albeit at different frequencies. Another type of complication, the existence of heterozygotes, occurred because of the high level of redundancy of the A. vinelandii genome.