The dose-proportional, intraindividual, single- and repeated-dose pharmacokinetics of roflumilast, an oral, once-daily phosphodiesterase 4 inhibitor under investigation for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and asthma, was investigated in healthy subjects. In an open, randomized, 2-period, 2-sequence crossover study, 15 subjects received immediate-release tablets of roflumilast 250 or 500 microg as single (day 1) and as repeated, once-daily doses for 8 days (days 5-12). Dose-adjusted point estimates and 90% confidence intervals of test (500 microg)/reference (250 microg) ratios for AUC and Cmax of roflumilast and its pharmacologically active N-oxide metabolite after single and repeated dosing were all within the standard equivalence acceptance range (0.80, 1.25) indicating dose proportionality. The pharmacokinetic properties of both roflumilast dosage forms provide clinically relevant evidence of predictable, intraindividual total (AUC) and maximum (Cmax) exposure of roflumilast and roflumilast N-oxide. Repeated oral dosing with roflumilast 250 and 500 microg once daily was well tolerated.