Hypoxia is an important feature of tumor microenvironment, exerting far-reaching effects on cells and contributing to cancer progression. Previous studies have established substantial differences in hypoxia response between various cell lines. Investigating this phenomenon in melanoma cells contributes to a better understanding of cell lineage-specific hypoxia response and could point out novel hypoxia-regulated genes. We investigated transcriptional activity of B 16(F10) murine melanoma cells cultured for 24 h under hypoxic (nominal 1% O2, 15 samples including controls) and hypoxia-mimicking conditions (cobalt chloride, 100 or 200 microM, 6 samples including controls). Gene expression profiles were analyzed using MG-U74Av2 oligonucleotide microarrays. Data analysis revealed 2541 probesets (FDR <5%) for 1% oxygen experiment and 364 probesets (FDR <5%) for cobalt chloride, which showed differences in expression levels. Analysis of hypoxia-regulated genes (true hypoxia, 1% O2) by stringent Family-Wise Error Rate estimation indicated 454 significantly changed transcripts (p < 0.05). The most upregulated genes were Lgals3, Selenbpl, Nppb (more than ten-fold increase). We observed significant differences in expression levels of genes regulating glycolysis (Pfkp, Hk2, Aldo3, Eno2), apoptosis (Bnip3, Bnip31, Cdknla), transcription (Bhlhb2, Sap30, Atf3, Mxil), angiogenesis (Vegfa, Adm, Anxa2, Ctgf), adhesion (Pkp2, Itga4, Mcam), migration (Cnn2, Tmsb4x), and other processes. Both true hypoxia and hypoxia mimicry induced HIF-1-regulated genes. However, unsupervised analysis (Singular Value Decomposition) revealed distinct differences in gene expression between these two experimental conditions. Contrary to hypoxia, cobalt chloride caused suppression of gene expression rather than stimulation, especially concerning transcripts related to proliferation, immune response, DNA repair, and melanin biosynthesis.