A predictive technique in the management of patients with cancer could improve the therapeutic index by allowing better individualisation of treatment. The standard risk factors that are currently used do not adequately account for the unpredictable and substantial variation seen in the treatment response of patients with a similar risk profile. Dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) MRI is a non-invasive technique that can provide anatomical and physiological information on the tumour. The DCE-MRI data reflects the tumour microenvironment variables that are known to influence radiation response. The aim of this review is to describe the potential clinical application of DCE-MRI as a predictor of radiation response. We have reviewed the literature and identified 29 studies (total of 1194 patients) that correlate DCE-MRI with histopathological or clinical outcome data relevant to radiotherapy.