Gaucher disease, the most prevalent lysosomal storage disease, results from an inherited deficiency in the enzyme glucocerebrosidase. Three clinical forms of Gaucher disease have been described: Type 1 non-neuronopathic, Type 2 acute neuronopathic, and Type 3 subacute neuronopathic. Although Gaucher disease is panethnic, its presentation reveals some ethnic-specific characteristics. The Type 1 form is most common among Caucasian patients. In contrast, the majority of Chinese Gaucher disease patients have early age of onset, severe hematological and skeletal complications, and often neurological involvement, resulting in early childhood death. In this report, we review 29 cases of Gaucher disease from 23 unrelated patients and 6 patients from 3 non-consanguineous families. Among these patients, 13 were diagnosed as Type 1, 10 as Type 2, and 6 as Type 3. A novel mutation, del 205-209ACCTT, was identified in the heterozygous form with mutation R353W (c.1174C>T) by DNA sequence analysis in 2 Type 1 patients who are sibs. Mutation R353W was also found in the heterozygous form in 3 other Type 1 patients, with mutation L444P in 2 sibs and a second unknown Gaucher allele in the third patient. The Gaucher genotypes of the remaining Type 1 patients were F37V/L444P, G46E/L444P, R48W/R120W, N188S/L444P, Y205C/L444P, N370S/L444P, and L444P/unknown. It was noted that mutation N370S in the patient was linked to the pv1.1(-)(1) haplotype present in Jewish patients. Among the Type 2 patients, L444P was present in the heterozygous form with mutation F213I, L385P, or the complex allele (RecNci) in 5 patients. The second most common mutation, F213I, was found in the heterozygous form in 6 patients with mutations N382K, L383R, or L444P. The other mutations found in the Type 2 patients were P122L, V375L, Y363C, M416V, and 383-400del. The genotypes of the 6 Type 3 patients identified were D409H/D409H, D409H/G202R, G46E/N188S, N188S/unknown, and L444P/L444P. While D409H has been reported as being associated with cardiovascular/ocular involvements in Gaucher disease, there have been no such complications in these patients. As noted, the majority of the Gaucher mutations we identified in the Chinese patients were either rare or absent in other populations. With the exception of N370S and R353W found only in the Type 1 form, the majority of these mutations are severe ones that result in poor prognosis and often Types 2 and 3 Gaucher disease.