HIV and pneumococcal disease

Curr Opin Infect Dis. 2007 Feb;20(1):11-5. doi: 10.1097/QCO.0b013e328012c5f1.


Purpose of review: To describe the impact of highly active antiretroviral therapy on the burden of pneumococcal disease and advances in our understanding of the impact of HIV on this disease.

Recent findings: Although highly active antiretroviral therapy has reduced the burden of pneumococcal disease among HIV-infected adults, these infections remain far more common than in HIV uninfected adults. HIV-infected adults who smoke or have comorbidities are at particular risk. In the absence of highly active antiretroviral therapy, pneumococcal meningitis has emerged in Africa as a major disease burden with a high mortality among HIV-infected children and adults. Conjugate pneumococcal vaccine protects HIV-infected infants from pneumococcal pneumonia. In the United States, where conjugate vaccine is given to children, herd immunity has reduced the burden of invasive pneumococcal disease among HIV-infected adults.

Summary: The pneumococcus remains a significant cause of morbidity and mortality among HIV-infected children and adults, both in developed and in developing countries.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Anti-Retroviral Agents / pharmacology
  • Anti-Retroviral Agents / therapeutic use*
  • Cost of Illness
  • HIV Infections / complications*
  • HIV Infections / drug therapy
  • Humans
  • Pneumococcal Infections / epidemiology*
  • Pneumococcal Infections / etiology
  • Streptococcus pneumoniae / classification
  • Streptococcus pneumoniae / drug effects
  • Streptococcus pneumoniae / isolation & purification
  • Vaccines, Conjugate / therapeutic use


  • Anti-Retroviral Agents
  • Vaccines, Conjugate