We studied the human melanoma black-45 (HMB-45) reactivity in 25 uterine leiomyosarcomas including 23 conventional and 2 myxoid variants. Eleven tumors were poorly differentiated, and 14 were well to moderately differentiated. Nine uterine leiomyosarcomas labeled with HMB-45 in 10% or less of the tumor cells. Six were poorly differentiated and 3 were well differentiated. Our study indicates that 36% of conventional leiomyosarcomas focally express HMB-45. HMB-45 reactivity was more common in the poorly differentiated than in the well-differentiated group of leiomyosarcomas. In light of our findings and of those recently reported in the literature, we believe that the term PEComa should not be used for uterine leiomyosarcomas with clear cells or for conventional leiomyosarcomas that stain positively with HMB-45.