Cardiovascular risk increases with each decrement in renal function. Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol levels are not associated with increased mortality, but high-density lipoprotein (HDL) levels are inversely associated with cardiovascular risk. Lipoprotein composition with increased abundance of small dense LDL and HDL and reduced levels of more buoyant isoforms is similar to what is found in states of insulin resistance and in the metabolic syndrome (MS). In both cases, high triglyceride levels are associated with reduced HDL levels. Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is itself associated with increasing insulin resistance as renal function fails. In both instances, decreased levels of apo A-I and apo A-II are a consequence of increased fractional catabolic rate (FCR), resulting from a predominance of small HDL particles. HDL maturation is impaired in CKD through decreased activity of lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT), and increased cholesterol ester transfer protein (CETP) activity in MS shuttles triglycerides back into HDL, thereby destabilizing it. Whether insulin resistance is entirely responsible for disorders of HDL metabolism in CKD, or whether the process is a result of unrelated pathophysiology, is currently unknown.