In 1998, the United States Department of Agriculture's Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS) and the Food and Drug Administration completed a risk assessment that indicated multiple interventions along the farm-to-table chain were needed to reduce the risk of human illness from Salmonella Enteritidis in shell eggs. Based on newly available data and improved modeling techniques, FSIS completed an updated risk assessment to examine the effect of pasteurization and refrigeration on reducing human illnesses from S. Enteritidis in shell eggs. The risk assessment model was written in Visual Basic for Applications (Microsoft, Redmond, WA) and run using Monte Carlo methods. The model estimated that if all shell eggs produced in the United States were pasteurized for a 3-log10 reduction of S. Enteritidis, the annual number of illnesses from S. Enteritidis in eggs would decrease from approximately 130,000 to 40,000. Pasteurization for a 5-log10 reduction of S. Enteritidis was estimated to reduce the annual number of illnesses to 19,000. The model also estimated that if all eggs produced in the United States were stored and held at 7.2 degrees C within 12 hours of lay, the annual number of illnesses from S. Enteritidis in eggs would decrease from 130,000 to 28,000. As a result, rapid cooling and pasteurization of shell eggs were predicted to be highly effective mitigations for reducing illnesses from consumption of S. Enteritidis in shell eggs.