Increased insulin secretion and expansion of pancreatic beta cell mass work together to maintain normal glucose levels when insulin resistance develops. Changes in glucose concentration have long been known to have profound effects upon the rates of insulin secretion and beta cell mass, but various other agents can also cause changes, raising questions about which mechanisms are dominant. Evidence favoring a dominant role for glucose is provided by Terauchi et al. in this issue of the JCI (see the related article beginning on page 246). Mice haploinsufficient for beta cell glucokinase (Gck) were unable to increase their beta cell mass in response to insulin resistance produced by high-fat feeding. Gck is known to be the glucose sensor for glucose metabolism in beta cells. The study also provides strong evidence that insulin receptor substrate 2 (Irs2), which is known to have major effects on beta cell growth and survival, is a key downstream mediator of the effects of glucose found in this study.