Glucokinase (Gck) functions as a glucose sensor for insulin secretion, and in mice fed standard chow, haploinsufficiency of beta cell-specific Gck (Gck(+/-)) causes impaired insulin secretion to glucose, although the animals have a normal beta cell mass. When fed a high-fat (HF) diet, wild-type mice showed marked beta cell hyperplasia, whereas Gck(+/-) mice demonstrated decreased beta cell replication and insufficient beta cell hyperplasia despite showing a similar degree of insulin resistance. DNA chip analysis revealed decreased insulin receptor substrate 2 (Irs2) expression in HF diet-fed Gck(+/-) mouse islets compared with wild-type islets. Western blot analyses confirmed upregulated Irs2 expression in the islets of HF diet-fed wild-type mice compared with those fed standard chow and reduced expression in HF diet-fed Gck(+/-) mice compared with those of HF diet-fed wild-type mice. HF diet-fed Irs2(+/-) mice failed to show a sufficient increase in beta cell mass, and overexpression of Irs2 in beta cells of HF diet-fed Gck(+/-) mice partially prevented diabetes by increasing beta cell mass. These results suggest that Gck and Irs2 are critical requirements for beta cell hyperplasia to occur in response to HF diet-induced insulin resistance.