We have generated a monoclonal antibody, termed 1E8, that is specific for myelinating and nonmyelinating Schwann cells in mature chickens. 1E8 first stains cells at the edge of the neural crest; later, cells located between the neural tube and somites and in the sclerotome are immunopositive. Double labeling with HNK-1 indicates that these 1E8-positive cells represent a subset of neural crest cells in the ventral migratory pathways. 1E8-positive cells are later associated with the dorsal and ventral roots and with extending nerve trunks. In Western blots, 1E8 reacts with proteins comigrating with P0. Immunodepletion experiments establish that all P0 molecules carry the 1E8 determinant. The developmental distribution of P0, as determined by 1E8 immunoreactivity, differs from that reported for P0 in mammals and suggests that, in chicken, P0 is an early marker for the Schwann cell lineage.