Objectives: This phase 2 randomized study compared the toxicity and assessed the efficacy of gemcitabine-cisplatin (GP) and gemcitabine-carboplatin (GC) in patients with advanced transitional cell carcinoma of the urothelium (TCC), with the main objective to demonstrate a reduction in toxicity of at least 25% in the GC arm.
Methods: A total of 110 chemonaive patients (55 per arm) with locally advanced or metastatic TCC received gemcitabine 1250 mg/m(2) on days 1 and 8 plus cisplatin 70 mg/m(2) on day 2 (GP) every 3 wk or gemcitabine 1250 mg/m(2) on days 1 and 8 plus carboplatin AUC 5 on day 2 (GC) every 3 wk for a maximum of six cycles.
Results: No differences between arms were noted in the overall toxicity profiles and any parameter of toxicity. The most frequent grade 3-4 hematologic toxicity was neutropenia in 34.6% of patients for GP and 45.4% for GC. The most frequent grade 3-4 nonhematologic toxicity was nausea and vomiting (GP: 9.1%; GC: 3.6%). Grade 1-2 nephrotoxicity occurred in 14 GP-treated patients (26.0%) and 9 GC-treated patients (16.3%). Per an intent-to-treat analysis, overall response, evaluated on 80 patients, was 49.1% for GP (CR: 14.5%; PR: 34.5%) and 40.0% for GC (CR: 1.8%; PR: 38.2%). Median time to progression was 8.3 mo for GP and 7.7 mo for GC. Median survival was 12.8 mo and 9.8 mo for GP and GC, respectively.
Conclusions: GC has a comparably acceptable toxicity profile compared with that of GP and seems active in patients with TCC.