The central role of protein kinases in signal transduction pathways has generated intense interest in targeting these enzymes for a wide range of therapeutic indications. Here we report a method for identifying and quantifying protein kinases in any biological sample or tissue from any species. The procedure relies on acyl phosphate-containing nucleotides, prepared from a biotin derivative and ATP or ADP. The acyl phosphate probes react selectively and covalently at the ATP binding sites of at least 75% of the known human protein kinases. Biotinylated peptide fragments from labeled proteomes are captured and then sequenced and identified using a mass spectrometry-based analysis platform to determine the kinases present and their relative levels. Further, direct competition between the probes and inhibitors can be assessed to determine inhibitor potency and selectivity against native protein kinases, as well as hundreds of other ATPases. The ability to broadly profile kinase activities in native proteomes offers an exciting prospect for both target discovery and inhibitor selectivity profiling.