Variation in nuclear DNA concentrations during urination

J Forensic Sci. 2007 Jan;52(1):110-3. doi: 10.1111/j.1556-4029.2006.00329.x.


This study examined the cellular origin and concentration of nuclear DNA in human urine. Ten subjects provided two entire, first-morning voids: one as a single specimen and one as a consecutive series of samples. The serial samples were centrifuged, organically extracted, and quantified by slot-blot analysis. Total DNA concentrations ranged from 0.02 to 21.3 ng/mL for the males and 25.0 to 96.9 ng/mL for the females. The female samples were found to contain numerous vaginal epithelial cells. DNA was detected in all of the serial samples of nine subjects; however, the DNA concentrations varied considerably. With six subjects, the DNA concentration of the first serial sample was at least three times greater than that of the entire void. DNA was only detected in the first 21% of the void from one male subject. The results of this study have implications for the collection of urine samples.

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • DNA / urine*
  • Epithelial Cells / cytology
  • Female
  • Forensic Genetics
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Sex Factors
  • Urinalysis
  • Vagina / cytology


  • DNA