The term "neuroacanthocytosis" is normally used to refer to autosomal recessive chorea-acanthocytosis and X-linked McLeod syndrome, but there are other movement disorders in which erythrocyte acanthocytosis may also be seen, such as Huntington disease-like 2 and pantothenate kinase-associated neurodegeneration. Disorders of serum lipoproteins such as Bassen-Kornzweig disease form a distinct group of neuroacanthocytosis syndromes in which ataxia is observed, but movement disorders are not seen. Genetic testing has enabled us to distinguish between these disorders, even when there are considerable similarities between phenotypes. Improved detection is important for accurate genetic counseling, for monitoring for complications, and, it is hoped, for implementing causal treatments, once these become available. As in other neurodegenerative conditions, animal models are a promising strategy for the development of such therapies.