Effects of mechanical flexion on the penetration of fullerene amino acid-derivatized peptide nanoparticles through skin

Nano Lett. 2007 Jan;7(1):155-60. doi: 10.1021/nl062464m.


Dermatomed porcine skin was fixed to a flexing device and topically dosed with 33.5 mg.mL-1 of an aqueous solution of a fullerene-substituted phenylalanine (Baa) derivative of a nuclear localization peptide sequence (Baa-Lys(FITC)-NLS). Skin was flexed for 60 or 90 min or left unflexed (control). Confocal microscopy depicted dermal penetration of the nanoparticles at 8 h in skin flexed for 60 and 90 min, whereas Baa-Lys(FITC)-NLS did not penetrate into the dermis of unflexed skin until 24 h. TEM analysis revealed fullerene-peptide localization within the intercellular spaces of the stratum granulosum.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Amino Acids / chemistry*
  • Fluorescein-5-isothiocyanate
  • Fullerenes / chemistry*
  • Microscopy, Confocal
  • Nanoparticles / chemistry*
  • Nuclear Localization Signals
  • Peptides / pharmacokinetics*
  • Skin Absorption*


  • Amino Acids
  • Fullerenes
  • Nuclear Localization Signals
  • Peptides
  • Fluorescein-5-isothiocyanate