The free fatty acid receptor, GPR40, has been coupled with insulin secretion via its expression in pancreatic beta-cells. However, the role of GPR40 in the release of glucagon has not been studied and previous attempts to identify the receptor in alpha-cells have been unfruitful. Using double-staining for glucagon and GPR40 expression, we demonstrate that the two are expressed in the same cells in the periphery of mouse islets. In-R1-G9 hamster glucagonoma cells respond dose-dependently to linoleic acid stimulation by elevated phosphatidyl inositol hydrolysis and glucagon release and the cells become increasingly responsive to fatty acid stimulation when overexpressing GPR40. Isolated mouse islets also secrete glucagon in response to linoleic acid, a response that was abolished by antisense treatment against GPR40. This study demonstrates that GPR40 is present and active in pancreatic alpha-cells and puts further emphasis on the importance of this nutrient sensing receptor in islet function.