Infiltrating T lymphocytes are found in many malignancies, but they appear to be mostly anergic and do not attack the tumor, presumably because of defective T-cell activation events. Recently, we described a strategy for the tumor-specific polyclonal activation of tumor-resident T lymphocytes based on the in situ production of recombinant bispecific antibodies (bsAbs) by transfected nonhematological cell lines. Here, we have constructed a novel HIV-1-based lentiviral vector for efficient gene transduction into various human hematopoietic cell types. Several myelomonocytic and lymphocytic cell lines secreted the anti-carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) x anti-CD3 diabody in a functionally active form with CD3(+) T-cell lines being the most efficient secretors. Furthermore, primary human peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs) were also efficiently transduced and secreted high levels of functional diabody. Importantly gene-modified PBLs significantly reduced in vivo tumor growth rates in xenograft studies. These results demonstrate, for the first time, the utility of lentiviral vectors for sustained expression of recombinant bsAbs in human T lymphocytes. Such T lymphocytes, transduced ex vivo to secrete the activating diabody in autocrine fashion, may provide a promising route for a gene therapy strategy for solid human tumors.