The aim of the current study was to elucidate the potential therapeutic effect of Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharide peptide (GL-PP) in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The effects of GL-PP on cell proliferation and cytokine production were studied in RA synovial fibroblasts (RASF). GL-PP significantly inhibited the proliferation of RASF. Following the incubation with GL-PP, production of interleukin (IL)-6 and monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1 in RASF were significantly increased as expressed as percentage change from basal values. However, the actual effects were minimal due to the low basal values. When RASF were activated by IL-1beta or lipopolysaccharides, IL-8 and MCP-1 production increased many folds. GL-PP significantly suppressed their productions. The inhibitory effects of GL-PP on cytokine production in RASF were at least in part, by inhibiting the nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kappaB) transcription pathway. Our results demonstrated that GL-PP had the unique ability to modulate cytokine production in RASF and warrants further investigation into its mechanism of action.