Objective: To determine the Irish prevalence of autoimmune polyendocrinopathy-candidiasis-ectodermal dystrophy (APECED), the AIRE mutations involved and clinical features of this population.
Methods: All patients were identified through paediatricians and endocrinologists in Ireland. Patients were invited to attend a multidisciplinary clinic.
Results: Thirty-one patients (2-56 years), 18 female, were identified from 19 families giving an Irish prevalence of 1:130,000. Twenty-six patients had hypoparathyroidism, 21 had adrenal insufficiency (AI) and 10 of 16 had ovarian failure. Three affected patients have died. Many with hypoparathyroidism were resistant to 1-alpha-vitamin D. Two needed daily PTH injections. Mineralocorticoid deficiency as the first manifestation of AI was common. Chronic intra-oral candidiasis affected 25 patients and three had leukoplakia. Two had keratoconjuntivitis. Of 22 with AIRE gene analysis, three different mutations were identified, one of which is novel.
Conclusion: APECED is rare in Ireland. We saw a significant amount of non-endocrine disease but no ectodermal dystrophy. AIRE gene analysis reassured many siblings and identified individuals with APECED prior to any symptoms.