Because no single center has accumulated a large experience with this complex operation, the effectiveness of combined orthotopic heart transplantation (OHT) and orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) in achieving long-term survival has been unknown. Cases of OHT-OLT were pooled from a U.S. transplant recipient registry and from previously published literature. Aggregate data from these sources was used for survival analysis. Thirty-six patients having undergone OHT-OLT were listed in the national registry; the one- and five-year patient survival rates of these patients were 88% and 78%, respectively. Many patients remain alive at 8+ years after transplantation. An analysis of the pooled results of previously-published cases estimated a one-year patient survival rate of 84%. In selected disease processes, OHT-OLT can correct underlying metabolic deficiencies. While rarely indicated, OHT-OLT is a successful treatment for patients with end-stage heart and liver disease, with survival comparable to that seen after isolated orthotopic heart or orthotopic liver transplantation.