Objective: To assess the role of maternal demographic characteristics, uterine artery Doppler velocimetry, maternal serum pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A) and their combination in screening for pre-eclampsia and small-for-gestational age (SGA) fetuses at 11-14 weeks.
Methods: This was a prospective study of 878 consecutive women presenting for a routine prenatal ultrasound examination at 11-14 weeks. Pulsed wave Doppler was then used to obtain uterine artery flow velocity waveforms and the mean pulsatility index (PI) of the uterine arteries was calculated. Maternal serum samples for PAPP-A were assayed. Along with maternal history, these measurements were compared in their ability to predict adverse outcome, defined as pre-eclampsia and/or SGA and/or placental abruption.
Results: Mean uterine artery PI > or = 95(th) centile and PAPP-A < or = 10(th) centile each predicted 23% of the women that developed pre-eclampsia and 43% of cases of placental abruption. For SGA < or = 5(th) centile, mean uterine artery PI > or = 95(th) centile predicted 23% of cases and PAPP-A < or = 10(th) centile predicted 34%. Independent predictors for subsequent development of pre-eclampsia were increased mean uterine artery PI > or = 95(th) centile (OR, 2.76; 95% CI, 1.11-6.81) and maternal history of pre-eclampsia/hypertension (OR, 50.54; 95% CI, 10.52-242.73). The predicting factors for SGA < or = 5(th) centile were increased mean uterine artery PI > or = 95(th) centile (OR, 2.0; 95% CI, 1.07-3.74) and low PAPP-A (OR, 0.43; 95% CI, 0.20-0.93). Increased uterine artery PI was the only independent factor in the prediction of placental abruption (OR, 8.49; 95% CI, 2.78-25.94). The combination of uterine artery PI and maternal history of pre-eclampsia/hypertension was better than was using uterine artery Doppler alone in predicting pre-eclampsia. Similarly, for the prediction of SGA < or = 5(th) centile, combining uterine artery Doppler and maternal serum PAPP-A was better than was uterine artery Doppler alone. In both cases, the difference approached statistical significance.
Conclusions: The combination of maternal history with abnormal uterine artery Doppler and low PAPP-A level at 11-14 weeks achieves better results than does either test alone in the prediction of pre-eclampsia and SGA.
Copyright 2007 ISUOG. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.