The Rho GTPases are implicated in almost every fundamental cellular process. They act as molecular switches that cycle between an active GTP-bound and an inactive GDP-bound state. Their slow intrinsic GTPase activity is greatly enhanced by RhoGAPs (Rho GTPase-activating proteins), thus causing their inactivation. To date, more than 70 RhoGAPs have been identified in eukaryotes, ranging from yeast to human, and based on sequence homology of their RhoGAP domain, we have grouped them into subfamilies. In the present Review, we discuss their regulation, biological functions and implication in human diseases.